The New Generation of Labor Activists
“I am saddened and concerned to hear that anyone thinks that this is needed now.”
At the same time policy-induced inflation and economic pain remain stubbornly high, there may be an emerging employment trend gaining ground across the country. We’re not referring to mass layoffs hitting the news recently or the “great resignation” of employees, as it has been called over the past few years. The trend some in the media are talking about now is that of organized labor — unions — expanding steadily into heretofore unreached industries.
On Thursday’s episode of her podcast The Assignment with Audie Cornish, the CNN host took a deeper look at the “new generation of labor organizers” who are making their impact by “relying less on traditional big labor unions.”
The host began the well-produced program by explaining the view that the “great resignation” has actually led to employees searching for better employment or, at the very least, better conditions under which to work. She mentioned employee classes, such as baristas, warehouse workers and strippers who make up this new generation of employees giving a fresh look to organized labor.
To many across America, including other influential media voices, the term Big Labor has extremely negative connotations.
“It’s often a term used by the opposition to make workers look like a special interest group when it comes to demanding respect and rights. But I think part of the dynamic you’re getting at, which is more authentic, is the relationship between institutions and movements,” said Erica Smiley, longtime activist and the Executive Director of Jobs with Justice.
“So there’s the labor movement, which is very big, which includes people who are organizing for the first time, whether they have an affiliation or not, or an organization or not, and includes members of existing unions who are trying to negotiate, maybe not for the first time.”
Cornish pointed out that organized labor doesn’t necessarily have the best reputation, deservedly or not.
“There’s always, like, some truth in every stereotype. So I don’t want to pretend like it’s this beautiful utopian thing,” Smiley admitted. “But what I will say is that those of us who study movements for a long time understand that there’s a symbiotic relationship between a movement and institutions, and it’s often full of tension.
“But, you know, these institutions ultimately implement the victories of the movement that was before them. And so what we’re seeing now is an upsurge in a movement, a new movement of workers trying to figure out how to organize and essentially practice democracy at work and the current protocols and protections that were won previously in 1935, for example, don’t necessarily fit.”
Some might say the year 2023 is among the worst times for organized labor to make a resurgence, with Americans’ economic pain at record highs and many corporations already being forced into downsizing moves.
Take, for example, Ken Coleman of Ramsey Solutions, who weighed in last year after Howard Schultz returned to Starbucks as interim CEO, taking on the task of helping the corporation stave off a deleterious union offensive.
“No partner has ever needed to have a representative to seek to obtain things we all have as partners of Starbucks,” Coleman quoted Schultz as saying in an NPR article. “I am saddened and concerned to hear that anyone thinks that this is needed now.”
“Everybody tends to think, if you’re not educated on what unions are, that oh, it’s a good thing. Now folks, I tell you every day that I’m a man of the people. And I am a man of the people. But unions are bad for the people!” Coleman said last year. “Why? Well number one, unions don’t organize and represent you, the people, for free. It actually costs you money, union dues. Go do your homework on the Google, alright, about all the bad stories and awful ways that union leaders take those dues of hard-working American women and men and abuse them.”
Coleman pointed out that unions “create an unnecessary and adversarial tension between employees and company leaders” and that “just by having a union it already says from day one, it’s us versus you.” He added that union decisions don’t always represent the people in the unions or advance the wishes of the employees. Furthermore, he explained how unions, when put into effect, coerce employees away from freedom.
“Unions, by nature, discourage individuality and personal growth,” Coleman, a well-respected career coach, said during his segment last year. “Because it’s not like, hey, I can win in this company and climb the ladder. No, you can only do what the union says you can do.”
On her program released Thursday, Cornish pointed out that these new uprisings in 2023 have been relatively driven by the employees themselves, rather than by coordinated large labor organizations.
“These kind of rank and file groups that establish union drives or at least push or petition for certain rights in the workplace have wielded the sort of modern levers of technology in organizing in ways that have been innovative,” Cornish said.
“So to give the example, Staten Island, as you said, Amazon Labor union, they collected enough union cards to be approved for election at two warehouses. They relied on basically workers, right? No professional organizers. They used a GoFund Me instead of dues. And, you know, they were spreading the word the way we spread the word about anything, you know, these days online and social networking.”
She asked her guest if these results have a different feel from labor gains in years gone by.
“The truth of the matter is it was a reminder of what organizing actually is. I mean, I think as paid organizers or functionaries or institutions, however you want to describe those of us who who kind of do this full time, often get comfortable, get really used to the rules as they are, and just want to, you know, assume everything has to operate within that framework, forgetting that those rules were created because the previous ones were broken by regular, everyday people, just like the workers at Staten Island,” Smiley said.
As Coleman noted on The Ken Coleman Show last year, unions create higher costs for companies and drive prices for consumers up.
“Unions aren’t unions. It’s a political organization that doesn’t help anybody,” Coleman said.
Smiley, during last week’s CNN podcast, said local movements start with the people, rather than with the powerful, coordinating organizers.
“The best union drives, even the biggest institutions of today started based on a similar effort like what we saw in Staten Island with people coming together using the technology of the day, raising money however they could in order to win recognition,” Smiley said. “And so it was a kind of a wake up call to get back to our roots in terms of what it means to have regular people talking to each other as opposed to just kind of the traditional paid staff way of getting to scale.”
Cornish finished the 2nd half of the program by discussing the new look of organized labor with a young barista who recently helped unionize her Starbucks location in Memphis. And even with the younger look of today’s organized labor movement, Smiley believes the work is just beginning for people who see labor relations the way she does.
“Unlike activists who can operate in fits and spurts, who just have to plan the next March or get to the next election, you know, organizers have to get through every single day with their coworkers and their neighbors and whatever. And to think about the issues every single day. And some days there’s alignment and some days there’s not. And that’s actually normal,” Smiley said. “And so when I talk about the movement as a mess and I say it’s messy, that’s the mess. And, you know, some will call it a beautiful mess. It depends on the day, if you ask me. But it’s a mess. But it’s critical for our shared sustainability.”
CNN publishes a new episode of The Assignment with Audie Cornish every Thursday.
Rick Schultz is a former Sports Director for WFUV Radio at Fordham University. He has coached and mentored hundreds of Sports Broadcasting students at the Connecticut School of Broadcasting, Marist College and privately. His media career experiences include working for the Hudson Valley Renegades, Army Sports at West Point, The Norwich Navigators, 1340/1390 ESPN Radio in Poughkeepsie, NY, Time Warner Cable TV, Scorephone NY, Metro Networks, NBC Sports, ABC Sports, Cumulus Media, Pamal Broadcasting and WATR. He has also authored a number of books including “A Renegade Championship Summer” and “Untold Tales From The Bush Leagues”. To get in touch, find him on Twitter @RickSchultzNY.
Trump vs DeSantis Talk in 2023? You’re Wasting Your Listener’s Time
“I could scan local TV stations, newspaper websites and blogs and find more compelling stories with a more immediate and local impact in less than five minutes.”
I’m already tired.
No, not because I’m a morning show host who’s about to wrap up the week. I’m tired because it’s only March of 2023 and half of what I see on Twitter is Trump vs. DeSantis trolls going after each other.
Make. It. Stop.
OK, I can’t do that.
Although I guess I could stop following certain people on the platform, but that’s an option for another day.
But as it pertains to talk radio, before thinking this is a great Topic A or B for a show, let’s actually dissect whether or not this makes any sense to discuss at length.
First off, conservatives are usually the ones more likely to rightly point out that Twitter, and the rest of social media, is not real life. But for too many on Twitter, and elsewhere, they aren’t taking their own advice on this issue. It’s wildly hypocritical.
Granted, some of them are employed by either side, but most are not, and it’s exhausting to open up a social media app and see this back and forth with still one year to go until most primaries take place.
However, more importantly, as it pertains to local talk radio, there’s very little value in bringing any of this to your talk show in March of 2023. Walk around your community, do you really think the water cooler conversations are about Donald Trump vs. Ron DeSantis? I would guess that’s highly unlikely unless you work at the RNC or you’re a landscaper at Mar-A-Lago.
I could scan local TV stations, newspaper websites and blogs and find more compelling stories with a more immediate and local impact in less than five minutes. It might be more work from a topic development standpoint, but it’s doing the service that your audience expects of you as a local host. Plus, who wants to spend the next 12 months debating this nonsense?
Count me out.
That day will come as the 2024 election draws near, the storylines build and it becomes of more interest to the audience. But this week we just hit the first day of spring… in 2023!
On top of that, this topic is very likely to divide much of your audience earlier than you need to. What’s the benefit of that? Once again, that day may come, although who really knows what the next several months could bring?
If there’s anything we should know living through and covering the last few years of news, it’s to expect the unexpected. What we think will happen 12 months from now is almost guaranteed to not actually be the case.
So let’s go down the three-point check-list here:
- It’s not local or incredibly topical for most people right now
- It’s an audience divider
- The landscape isn’t guaranteed to look the same in 12 months
In this case, we can check off all three of those items with confidence.
So while national politics will likely always be blended into a multi-hour show, when appropriate, there’s absolutely no point in doing deep dives or taking multiple segments of callers on this topic at this point and time. It’s going to be a tune-out for most.
Plus, spare yourself the pain this early. And trust me, it will be painful when the time comes. At some point, you’ll be longing for the simpler days of March 2023.
Pete Mundo is the morning show host and program director for KCMO in Kansas City. Previously, he was a fill-in host nationally on FOX News Radio and CBS Sports Radio, while anchoring for WFAN, WCBS News Radio 880, and Bloomberg Radio. Pete was also the sports and news director for Omni Media Group at K-1O1/Z-92 in Woodward, Oklahoma. He’s also the owner of the Big 12-focused digital media outlet Heartland College Sports. To interact, find him on Twitter @PeteMundo.
Make Your AM Radio Content Necessary And Don’t Hope For A Government Bailout
If there is something so crucial to the mix, why have and why do AM signals regularly cross their content over to an FM signal?
Let us venture back to the business of radio. The fate of AM radio in cars is once again creating a buzz, a buzz electric car makers say is one of the reasons they’re not putting the AM band in their new EVs.
Apparently, the electric components in the EVs create static interference, making the AM signal unintelligible and useless.
On its face, that makes some sense to me. Plus, I know nothing of frequencies or signals and not much more about intricate technology.
So, I don’t see what the big deal really is if some cars don’t have AM radios. Some boats don’t, most tractors either, haven’t seen one on a horse lately.
I do not want nor do I advocate the elimination, disappearance, reduction of services or personnel connected to AM radio. I currently work in AM and FM radio, why would I support the demise of the AM signal? But can we be real, can we be accurate here?
Look around, it’s already begun. Volkswagen, Audi, Tesla, and Porsche have already pulled or will be pulling AM radio from their electric vehicles. Ford’s F150 Lightning and next year’s Mustang will also be minus the AM band.
From a business standpoint, I would assume the market for cars — as for many things — is largely directed towards the emerging as well as the current consumer. What do they want and what do they make use of? I think it’s fair to assume that a lot of people are or will be looking for EVs.
How many will be looking for or want AM radios in those cars?
The broadcast industry would be better served if they looked for the answer to that question.
Besides, what does AM have to offer at this point that FM does not? What is it that AM can do under these conditions that FM cannot?
The broadcast pharaohs and their political fronts say we must maintain the presence of AM radio in cars, even electric cars, because when it comes down to it, AM radio will be the source of moment by moment information when disaster strikes.
This week, Rep. Josh Gottheimer (D-NJ) announced his multi-pronged plan aimed at keeping AM in all vehicles. Along with urging automakers to go along, Gottheimer has called on the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) to add AM radio to the Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards.”
According to his website, that move would “require all automakers, EV included, to have AM radio as a stock feature in their vehicles.”
Sen. Edward J. Markey (D-MA) launched similar measures last year.
Let’s go back to the question: what can AM do that the FM cannot? And if there is something so crucial to the mix, why have and why do AM signals regularly cross their content over to an FM signal? More news, talk, sports, whatever pops up on the FM all the time. It’s already a haven for spoken word broadcast (I just love working in the term spoken word wherever I can).
In case of emergency and disaster, would an FM station not do what an AM brand would? If the tornado or missiles are heading our way would the FM just keep playing Lizzo and Dua Lipa? Will the Giants game go on uninterrupted while we drive along in ignorance?
If emergency information is on the AM only and not on the FM there’s only one reason that can be; the people in charge are not putting it there.
Listen to 1010 WINS in New York City at 1010 AM and then 92.3 FM, notice a difference? Where are you finding WTOP or KNX these days? Why? Maybe it all sounds better.
This is an old argument with an evergreen answer, these were studied, calculated business moves.
The idea? To find and attract as many listeners as possible.
Where do you put your best people, your best content? Where they are accessible, yes? Where an audience is likely to look for and find them, right? It’s hard to make them go looking for it.
For a radio, AM/FM or otherwise to be of any use, to do any good at all, it has to be on.
Look, there is no shame in wanting to keep AM radio from going away. It’s perfectly understandable. I have a 1941 Zenith upright in my living room. I love the way it looks plus it gets AM, FM and occasionally the drive thru at Arby’s.
But I also have an Alexa, a Bose, and I don’t know how many channels to watch and stream on my TV. I mean, unless you’re driving the overnight long-haul route to Butte, how many of us have CB radios in our cars? Or 8-track, cassette or CD players?
Try and buy a new car with a standard transmission. Most things in life have a generational shelf life. For now, the AM listeners are still in their cars, they’re certainly not at home.
But that will continue to change, at minimum it will evolve.
So how much effort and expense are we going to put forth to try and convince people they want something they obviously do not or prove to them they need something they don’t think they do?
Convince me. Convince them.
Bill Zito has devoted most of his work efforts to broadcast news since 1999. He made the career switch after serving a dozen years as a police officer on both coasts. Splitting the time between Radio and TV, he’s worked for ABC News and Fox News, News 12 New York , The Weather Channel and KIRO and KOMO in Seattle. He writes, edits and anchors for Audacy’s WTIC-AM in Hartford and lives in New England. You can find him on Twitter @BillZitoNEWS.
Cable News Channels Saw Massive Spikes During Alex Murdaugh Verdict
Even the prime time lineup of nascent news outlet NewsNation got a sizable bounce, especially for “Cuomo”, which achieved its most-watched edition in total viewers, to-date.
The Alex Murdaugh double-murder trial came to a conclusion on the evening of Thursday Mar. 2, Murdaugh, a member of a prominent South Carolina family and former attorney, was found guilty of shooting and killing both his wife Maggie and their youngest son Paul at their residence, and cable news outlets benefited greatly.
The court case that riveted the nation throughout the month of February was, of course, covered by many news outlets including broadcast and cable news as well as the various syndicated newsmagazines like Inside Edition and TMZ.
Leading the pack in cable news coverage was Fox News Channel. Normally topping the 7-8 p.m. hour with Jesse Watters Primetime on this night that hour delivered 3.51 million total viewers including 443,000 within the key 25-64 demographic, according to Nielsen Media Research. A far distant runner-up in total audience was MSNBC with 1.37 million; in adults 25-54, CNN (243,000) was closest to FNC among cable networks.
All three outlets drew at well above-average levels within the 7 p.m. hour and the few hours afterwards due to the verdict, as the following percentage increases show in comparison to their prior week (Feb. 20-24, 2023) returns:
Fox News Channel
- Jesse Watters Primetime (7-8 p.m.): 3.511 million viewers (+32%); 443,000 adults 25-54 (+65%)
- Tucker Carlson Tonight (8-9 p.m.): 3.346 million viewers (+9%); 449,000 adults 25-54 (+15%)
- Hannity (9-10 p.m.): 2.852 million viewers (+18%); 404,000 adults 25-54 (+37%)
- The Reidout (7-8 p.m.): 1.373 million viewers (+24%); 156,000 adults 25-54 (+42%)
- All In with Chris Hayes (8-9 p.m.): 1.515 million viewers (+39%); 153,000 adults 25-54 (+53%) (for Feb. 20-24, MSNBC aired nightly hourlong specials in the 8-9 p.m.slot marking the one-year anniversary of Russian’s invasion of Ukraine)
- Alex Wagner Tonight (9-10 p.m.): 1.317 million viewers (+6%); 145,000 adults 25-54 (+26%)
- Last Word with Lawrence O’Donnell (10-11 p.m.): 1.544 viewers (+15%) viewers; 118,000 adults 25-54 (-9%)
- Erin Burnett Outfront (7-8 p.m.): 1.130 million viewers (+89%); 243,000 adults 25-54 (+91%)
- Anderson Cooper 360 (8-9 p.m.): 1.183 million viewers (+79%); 191,000 adults 25-54 (+48%)
Even the prime time lineup of nascent news outlet NewsNation got a sizable bounce, especially for “Cuomo”, which achieved its most-watched edition in total viewers, to-date.
- On Balance with Leland Vittert (7-8 p.m.): 123,000 viewers (+146%); 44,000 adults 25-54 (+389%)
- Cuomo (8-9 p.m.): 231,000 viewers (+116%); 49,000 adults 25-54 (+227%)
- Dan Abrams Live (9-10 p.m.): 160,000 viewers (+44%); 29,000 adults 25-54 (+32%)
- Banfield (10-11 p.m.): 180,000 viewers (+82%); 40,000 adults 25-54 (+135%)
CBS was the lone broadcast network whose breaking news coverage of the Murdaugh verdict was published by Nielsen. It delivered 3.824 million viewers from 7:04-7:14 p.m. Eastern; that night’s edition of the CBS Evening News which preceded the special report on many CBS affiliates in the Eastern and Central time zones had drawn 5.11 million.
Cable news averages for February 27-March 5, 2023:
Total Day (Feb. 27-Mar. 5 @ 6 a.m.-5:59 a.m.)
- Fox News Channel: 1.375 million viewers; 177,000 adults 25-54
- MSNBC: 0.693 million viewers; 76,000 adults 25-54
- CNN: 0.446 million viewers; 84,000 adults 25-54
- HLN: 0.148 million viewers; 38,000 adults 25-54
- CNBC: 0.114 million viewers; 26,000 adults 25-54
- Fox Business Network: 0.114 million viewers; 12,000 adults 25-54
- The Weather Channel: 0.109 million viewers; 19,000 adults 25-54
- Newsmax: 0.092 million viewers; 9,000 adults 25-54
Prime Time (Feb. 27-Mar. 4 @ 8-11 p.m.; Mar. 5 @ 7-11 p.m.)
- Fox News Channel: 2.087 million viewers; 253,000 adults 25-54
- MSNBC: 1.130 million viewers; 106,000 adults 25-54
- CNN: 0.530 million viewers; 105,000 adults 25-54
- HLN: 0.203 million viewers; 48,000 adults 25-54
- CNBC: 0.159 million viewers; 43,000 adults 25-54
- The Weather Channel: 0.134 million viewers; 21,000 adults 25-54
- NewsNation: 0.115 million viewers; 22,000 adults 25-54
- Newsmax: 0.099 million viewers; 14,000 adults 25-54
- Fox Business Network: 0.061 million viewers; 12,000 adults 25-54
Top 10 most-watched cable news programs (and the top programs of other outlets with their respective associated ranks) in total viewers:
1. Jesse Watters Primetime (FOXNC, Thu. 3/2/2023 7:00 PM, 60 min.) 3.511 million viewers
2. Tucker Carlson Tonight (FOXNC, Thu. 3/2/2023 8:00 PM, 60 min.) 3.346 million viewers
3. The Five (FOXNC, Mon. 2/27/2023 5:00 PM, 60 min.) 3.313 million viewers
4. The Five (FOXNC, Thu. 3/2/2023 5:00 PM, 60 min.) 3.189 million viewers
5. The Five (FOXNC, Wed. 3/1/2023 5:00 PM, 60 min.) 3.133 million viewers
6. The Five (FOXNC, Tue. 2/28/2023 5:00 PM, 60 min.) 3.087 million viewers
7. Tucker Carlson Tonight (FOXNC, Mon. 2/27/2023 8:00 PM, 60 min.) 3.076 million viewers
8. Tucker Carlson Tonight (FOXNC, Tue. 2/28/2023 8:00 PM, 60 min.) 3.009 million viewers
9. Tucker Carlson Tonight (FOXNC, Wed. 3/1/2023 8:00 PM, 60 min.) 2.943 million viewers
10. The Five (FOXNC, Fri. 3/3/2023 5:00 PM, 60 min.) 2.899 million viewers
21. Rachel Maddow Show (MSNBC, Mon. 2/27/2023 9:00 PM, 60 min.) 2.383 million viewers
120. Anderson Cooper 360 (CNN, Thu. 3/2/2023 8:00 PM, 60 min.) 1.183 million viewers
181. Real Time With Bill Maher “Episode 626” (HBO, Fri. 3/3/2023 10:00 PM, 57 min.) 0.738 million viewers
360. The Daily Show “Mar 1, 23 – Hasan Minhaj” (CMDY, Wed. 3/1/2023 11:00 PM, 30 min.) 0.378 million viewers
375. Varney & Company (FBN, Thu. 3/2/2023 10:00 AM, 60 min.) 0.344 million viewers
379. Highway Thru Hell “(1108) Deep Freeze” (TWC, Sun. 3/5/2023 8:00 PM, 60 min.) 0.335 million viewers
424. Forensic Files (HLN, late Sat. 3/4/2023 12:30 AM, 30 min.) 0.269 million viewers
425. Fast Money Halftime Report (CNBC, Tue. 2/28/2023 12:00 PM, 60 min.) 0.268 million viewers
460. Cuomo “Alex Murdaugh Verdict” (NWSN, Thu. 3/2/2023 8:00 PM, 60 min.) 0.231 million viewers
Top 10 cable news programs (and the top programs of other outlets with their respective associated ranks) among adults 25-54:
1. Tucker Carlson Tonight (FOXNC, Wed. 3/1/2023 8:00 PM, 60 min.) 0.459 million adults 25-54
2. Tucker Carlson Tonight (FOXNC, Thu. 3/2/2023 8:00 PM, 60 min.) 0.449 million adults 25-54
3. Jesse Watters Primetime (FOXNC, Thu. 3/2/2023 7:00 PM, 60 min.) 0.443 million adults 25-54
4. Tucker Carlson Tonight (FOXNC, Mon. 2/27/2023 8:00 PM, 60 min.) 0.417 million adults 25-54
5. Hannity (FOXNC, Thu. 3/2/2023 9:00 PM, 60 min.) 0.404 million adults 25-54
6. Tucker Carlson Tonight (FOXNC, Tue. 2/28/2023 8:00 PM, 60 min.) 0.403 million adults 25-54
7. The Five (FOXNC, Thu. 3/2/2023 5:00 PM, 60 min.) 0.362 million adults 25-54
8. Jesse Watters Primetime (FOXNC, Mon. 2/27/2023 7:00 PM, 60 min.) 0.359 million adults 25-54
9. The Five (FOXNC, Mon. 2/27/2023 5:00 PM, 60 min.) 0.351 million adults 25-54
10. The Five (FOXNC, Wed. 3/1/2023 5:00 PM, 60 min.) 0.340 million adults 25-54
29. Rachel Maddow Show (MSNBC, Mon. 2/27/2023 9:00 PM, 60 min.) 0.263 million adults 25-54
32. Erin Burnett Outfront (CNN, Thu. 3/2/2023 7:00 PM, 60 min.) 0.243 million adults 25-54
105. The Daily Show “Mar 1, 23 – Hasan Minhaj” (CMDY, Wed. 3/1/2023 11:00 PM, 30 min.) 0.154 million adults 25-54
145. Real Time With Bill Maher “Episode 626” (HBO, Fri. 3/3/2023 10:00 PM, 57 min.) 0.124 million adults 25-54
241. Forensic Files (HLN, late Wed. 3/1/2023 2:00 AM, 30 min.) 0.094 million adults 25-54
342. Shark Tank “Shark Tank 713” (CNBC, Thu. 3/2/2023 10:00 PM, 60 min.) 0.072 million adults 25-54
385. Weather Underground (TWC, Fri. 3/3/2023 2:00 PM, 60 min.) 0.064 million adults 25-54
487. Cuomo “Alex Murdaugh Verdict” (NWSN, Thu. 3/2/2023 8:00 PM, 60 min.) 0.049 million adults 25-54
609. Mornings with Maria Bartiromo (FBN, Mon. 2/27/2023 8:00 AM, 60 min.) 0.034 million adults 25-54
Source: Live+Same Day data, Nielsen Media Research
Douglas Pucci is a Bronx native and NYU graduate analyzing news television ratings for Barrett News Media. He did an internship at VH1’s “Pop Up Video” in 1997. After college, Pucci went on to design, build and maintain websites for various non-profit organizations in his hometown of New York City. He has worked alongside media industry observer Marc Berman for over a decade reporting on all things television, first at Cross MediaWorks from 2011-15 then at Programming Insider since 2016. Pucci also contributed to the sports website Awful Announcing. Read more: https://programminginsider.com/author/douglas/